With the advent of civilization, open field agriculture is facing some major challenges; most importantly decrease in per capita land availability. In this paper, an attempt has been made to review crop growing substrates for protected farms. Substrate selection is a critical factor for optimal production of high-quality vegetables. Rooting depth determines the volume of substrate from. Consideration of optimal crop growing substrate and irrigation method while designing and maintaining a protected farm is very important for optimal crop growth and profit. Most farmers do not consider all the crop growing parameters for the optimal crop growth.